PERFIDI Filters: A Summary

POSTER by 1Ester Maria Vasini, 2Villiam Bortolotti, 3Paola Fantazzini, and 1Stanislav Sykora
1Extra Byte, Castano Primo, Italy
2DICAM, University of Bologna,   3DIFA, University of Bologna, Italy

Presented at XLVI GIDRM, Fisciano (Italy), September 27-29, 2017.

DOWNLOAD full poster: PDF DOI permalink: 10.3247/SL6Nmr17.007 Stan's Library | Stan's HUB

Please, cite this online document as:
Vasini E.M., Bortolotti V., Fantazzini P. and Sykora S.,
   PERFIDI Filters: A Summary,
   Poster at XLVI GIDRM, Fisciano (Italy), September 27-29, 2017, DOI: 10.3247/SL6Nmr17.007.


In the field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, the capability to distinguish/filter the signal of different part of a sample plays a key role in many applications. For example, in the medical field such possibility allows to improve the image contrast and the identification of the different tissue inside the human body. In the oil and gas field, the characterization of the different saturating reservoir fluids allows an optimized exploitation [1, 2].
Regarding T1 filtering, the literature reports many sequences dedicated to signal selection such as Short Time Inversion Recovery and Multiple Inversion Recovery [3], but usually these techniques allow the selection of only a discrete number of T1 values.
Parametrically Enabled Relaxation Filters with Double and Multiple Inversion [4, 5, 6] (PERFIDI) is an innovative technique which implements T1 filters, but differently to the standard selective sequences, it allows to filter the signal of a selected range of T1 values. PERFIDI filters, de facto, act like electronic band-pass, low-pass and high-pass filters. PERFIDI filters have been developed and tested both by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry and Imaging. Here we present a panoramic summary of this innovative filter technique, describing the validation of the method and the application on different kind of samples all characterized by a continuous T1 distribution, such as biological tissue and oil-water saturated porous media.
1. Balbi L., Bortolotti V., Brizi L., Fantazzini P., Greco D., Mariani M., Vannini M., Vasini E.M., “PERFIDI filters validation: from nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry to magnetic resonance imaging”, Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology 2015, 15, 1540061.
2. Bam B.B., Bonduà S., Bortolotti V., Macini P., Mesini E., Vasini E.M., Characterization of the reservoir rock saturating fluids by the NMR PERFIDI sequence, OMC 2017 proceedings.
3. Mai VM, Chen Q, Bankier AA, Zhang M, Hagspiel KD, Berr SS and Edelman RR, Imaging pulmonary blood flow and perfusion using phase-sensitive selective Inversion Recovery, Magn Reson Med, 43:793-795, 2000.
4. Fantazzini P, Sykora S, Italian Patent BO2005A000445, 2005.
5. Sykora S, Bortolotti V, Fantazzini P, PERFIDI: Parametrically Enabled Relaxation Filters with Double and Multiple Inversion, Magn Reson Imaging, 25: 529-532, 2007.
6. Bortolotti V, Fantazzini P, Gombia M, Greco D, Rinaldin G, Sykora S, PERFIDI filters to suppress and/or quantify relaxation time components in multi-component systems: An example for fat–water systems, J Magn Reson, 206: 219-226, 2010.


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